The Path for Energy Transition? The role of private actors and their interests towards polycentric climate governance
This paper aims to analyze the role of the private actors of the energy sector in the new model of climate governance, also known as polycentric governance. The structure of this publication is divided into four parts. The first provides a brief background about the transformations undergone under environmental regimes, in order to enable the growing participation of non-state actors in the implementation of international agreements. The second part looks at two energy cooperation platforms that play relevant roles in the framework of the Conferences of the Parties (COPs) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These are: the Coalition For Action, mediated by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), and Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL). Both initiatives are global platforms – comprised of government, private and non-governmental members – that advocate the transition to renewable energy sources and are discursively committed to the objectives of the Paris Agreement and Agenda 2030. The third part carries out a mapping of the profile of the private stakeholders belonging to these two groups, with a view to analyzing their main interests – environmental, economic and social – as stated on their websites and official documents. Finally, the fourth section of this publication points to the initiatives registered by the actors discussed here in the so-called Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA), a virtual platform managed by the UNFCCC Secretariat, aimed at accelerating contributions from non-state actors to reach the goals of the climate regime.